Anaemia is a condition in which the number of red blood cells or their oxygen-carrying capacity is insufficient to meet physiologic needs, which vary by age, sex, altitude, smoking, and pregnancy status.
There are several types and classifications of anaemia. This is a condition in which the body lacks the amount of red blood cells to keep up with the body's demand for oxygen.
Symptoms of Anemia
According to John Hopkins Point-of-Care Information Technology Center, (The John Hokins POC-IT Center), the most common causes of anemia include:
- weakness and fatigue,
- shortness of breath with activity,
- occasional chest pains, and
- cold, clammy skin.
Causes of Anemia
There are several causes of anemia, which include:
- Iron deficiency
- Kidney disease
- Poor nutrition
- Deficiency of vitamin B12 known as pernicious anemia
- Sickle cell anemia
- Bone marrow related anemia
- Aplastic anemia
- Hemolytic anemia
- Active bleeding, eg. heavy bleeding during menstration.
Once the doctor determines the cause he or she will initiate a treatment program for you. Here are some causes along with their treatment protocol. Blood Loss: the source of the bleeding will be determined and stopped. For example you may be given a blood transfusion and iron to build up your red blood cell count. Iron Deficiency: If you have inadequate iron levels you most likely will be prescribed iron supplements.
Do not do this on your own but under the care of a physician because consuming too much iron can be dangerous. Red blood cell destruction: Known as hemolytic anemia, there are various causes for it. So the treatment would of course depend on the cause. Follow up care: You need to stay under your doctor's care and have repeated blood work done to determine if the anemia has gone away. Your response to the treatments prescribed will determine what the next steps are to take. The hopeful outcome is that you have overcome your anemia.
If not, with continued care over time you should be able to do so. Before doing any dietary or lifestyle changes always consult with your health care provider, particularly if you have been diagnosed with a disease or are taking any prescription medication.
2 Diagnosis Nursing Interventions for Anemia
1. Ineffective Tissue Perfusion
- Adequate tissue perfusion
- Monitor vital signs, capillary refill, skin color, mucous membranes.
- Exalt the position of head of in bed
- Examine and document the presence of pain.
- Observation of a delay in verbal response, confusion, or restlessness
- Observe and document the presence of the cold.
- Maintain the ambient temperature to keep warm the body needs.
- Provide oxygen as needed.
2. Activity Intolerance
- Tolerant of activity
- Assess the capability of doing the activity
- Monitor vital signs during and after activity, and noted a physiological response to activity (increased heart rate increased blood pressure, or rapid breathing).
- Provide information to the patient or family to stop doing activities if teladi symptoms of increased heart rate, increased blood pressure, rapid breathing, dizziness or fatigue).
- Provide support to perform their daily activities according to the ability of the child.
- Creating a schedule of activities involving other health team.